Arquivos de junho, 2016

Social Empowerment – The Start of a New Era


History of society is marked by exploitation, where people have always been the losers. However, societies are in the beginning of a new era of a major socio-political paradigmatic change. Societies no longer trust the current power structure (and its incumbents) where they have been disenfranchised by self-serving representatives and their cronies and want to take hold of their governance at a local level to claim their universal right to a dignifying life in a more egalitarian environment.
The world today is going through a true corruption war with the corrupt on both sides of the illicit seemingly not intimidated by the creation of courts and quasi-judicial bodies which are accompanied by increase in legal and normative constraints. Why is this so? This paper is the preliminary phase of a new and comprehensive research about the present corruption war in the context of a rising social order and discusses the components and stages of corruption, accountability, risk of decision to corrupt, and corruption schemes, in addition to unpuzzling issues related to the measurement of corruption and suggests that juridification and judicialization processes in some cases become part of the problem rather than the solution.

Corruption – Can Brazil win this war?   BNDES – Planned Systemic Corruption


Corruption in Brazil is endemic and has increased since the end of the military transition regime in 1985, a year marked by an indirect presidential election, which was followed by the 1988 Constitutional Reform. The present thesis answers the research question of “how corruption affects well-being in Brazil” by investigating the existing cause-effect relationships and complex dynamics and logic between corruption and related variables in Brazil, with each of the twenty-seven causal diagrams being analyzed individually. Among the key findings are that (i) a center role is played by the level of quality of institutions, (ii) high corruption is a symptom of a fundamental problem with the independence, quality and effectiveness of the judiciary, and that (iii) corruption is dominated by fast destructive reinforcing loops that can deteriorate quite rapidly if left unwatched, and improvement to lower corruption levels is characterized by feedback loops with long delays. The present thesis also recommends anti-corruption policies that can result in lower levels of corruption and in improved well-being. Among the several policies recommended are: stop impunity of the corrupt, close the loophole on the penal procedure code that allows corrupt criminals to escape serving jail time, introduce severe jail sentences to the corrupt, strengthen control of corruption, strengthen the procedure for nomination of Supreme Court Judges and to ensure the independence of the judiciary, introduce the study of corruption at all levels of the school curricula, introduce a political reform to stop reelection and to strengthen the electoral system to promote the election of non-corrupt representatives, introduce policies to strengthen the control of the black market for currencies and illicit financial flows, including money laundering, trade misinvoicing, anonymous companies, tax havens, bank secrecy and others – ultimately, allow Brazil to win the war against corruption.